Evaluation of larvicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) against larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes
Damme, Van Patrick
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Malaria is the most important vector-borne disease in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although, different control measures like use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and curtains, chemotherapy and others are in place, so far, malaria eradication has proved impossible in affected areas. Therefore, any measure that attempts to fight the parasite or its vector (Anopheles spp.) would be of help. In this experiment, we assessed the efficacy of Euphorbia tirucalli latex both as a herbal mosquito remedy and larvicide against Anopheles fenestus Giles and Anopheles gambae Giles in a semi-natural environment. Our results indicate that E. tirucalli latex can bring about total mortality of Anopheles species larvae at the highest dilution used of 1: 250 in 5 days. LT 50 and LT 90 for the same dilution were attained at 12 and 36 h respectively. Latex was active only for eight days which is typical for herbal biocides, whose advantage is that they do not accumulate in the environment. It is concluded that E. tirucalli latex has a high efficacy against Anopheles mosquito larvae and could eventually be considered for adoption as a plant based mosquito larvicide, after further research.